ADVANCED LEARNER’S ENGLISH GRAMMAR & COMPOSITION
1. The plane will take off in time provided Ans: The plane will take off in ume provided the weather is good. 2. We shall start our journey tomorrow provided that …
Ans: We shall start our journey tomorrow provided that it does not rain. 3. I will agree to go providing that Ans: I will agree to go providing that my expenses are paid.
4. He will shine in life provided that Ans: He will shine in life provided that he works hard. 5. We shall start the programme provided
Ans: We shall start the programme provided circumstances favour us. 7. Lest
Lest শব্দের অর্থ “পাছে কর হয় যে (for fear that) Lest negative অর্থ প্রদান করে। অতএব Lest দ্বারা যে Clause আরম্ভ হয় তাতে no not
Clause শুরু হয় তার পরে should/ might বসে।
বসে না। ইহা দ্বারা যে
Lest যুক্ত Incomplete sentence কে Complete করার নিয়ম প্রথম থেকে lest পর্যন্ত বসে + প্রথম subject
+ should/ might fed af verb +……… 1. He ran away lest…..
Ans: He ran away lest he might/ should be seen. Ans: Read diligently lest you should fall in the examination.
2. Read diligently lest
3. He walked fast lest… Ans: He walked fast lest he should/ might reach school in time.
Note : Lest এর প্রথম অংশে একটি personal object থাকলে উক্ত personal object
subject রূপে বসে।
1. The officer was sympathetic to the peon lest…..com Ans: The officer was sympathetic to the peon lest he (p) should go away.
2. The house owner treated the servant well fest
টি lest এর পরে
Ans: The house owner treated the servant well lest he should leave the house. 8. Unless
Unless if not ( যদি না)। তাই unless দ্বারা যে Clause শুরু হয় সে Clause not”
ব্যবহৃত হয় না।
Unless যুক্ত Incomplete sentence কে complete করতে হলে প্রদত্ত Incomplete sentence টি বসে +
সাথে সঙ্গতিপূর্ণ একটি পূর্ণ sentence যোগ করতে হয়। 1. Unless you read attentively………….
Ans Unless you read attentively, you will fail. 2. Unless you start at once..
Ans: Unless you start at once, you will miss the train.
3. Come at 8 o’clock unless…………. Ans: Come at 8 o’clock unless I phone.
4. He will not shine unless
Ans: He will not shine unless he works hard.
Until / Till যুক্ত Incomplete Sentence-এর সাথে একটি full sentence যোগকরে প্রদত্ত Incomplete Sentence-টিকে Complete করতে হয়। Until/Till এর পরের অংশটি affirmative হয়।
1. Wait until Ans:
Walt until the rain stops 2. Wait for me until
Ans: Wait for me until I come back. 3. Rajib’s mother will be nursing him ull…..
Ans: Rajib’s mother will be nursing him till he comes round.
10. As long as
As long as যুক্ত Incomplete sentence sentence Complete করতে হয়।
1. Wait here as long as…… Ans: Wall here as l
ong as it rains.
টির সাথে একটি পূর্ণাঙ্গ sentence যোগ করে প্রদত্ত [Incomplete
2. Allah will be with us as long as Ans: Allah will be with us as long as our atm is honest.
3. He worked as long as Ans: He worked as long as he could.
11. Though, although, since, because, if, as To এদের সাথে একটি অর্থবহ পূর্ণাম sentence যোগ করতে হয়।
1. Though he is poor
Ans: Though he is poor, he is large hearted.
2. He could not catch the bus…..m Ans: He could not catch the bus
Incomplete sentence complete
3. Since body and mind go together although he ran fast. Ans: Since body and mind go together, illness of one inevitably affects the other.
Crops did not grow well since……….. Ans: Crops did not grow well since there was drought. 5. Everybody admires him because……..
Ans: Everybody admires him because he is honest. 6. If he comes
Ans: If he comes, I shall go.
7. She will not go out if…. Ans: She will not go out if it rains. 8. He was rewarded as
Ans: He was rewarded as he was truthful. 9. As he behaved rough
Ans: As he behaved rough, he was punished.
12. In spite of, despite
In spite of despite- এর অর্থ সত্ত্বেও। এ জাতীয় শব্দদ্বারা simple sentence গঠিত হয় Incomplete sentence- In spite of, despite come fare se sentence Incomplete
sentence টি complete করতে হয়। এক্ষেত্রে Incomplete অংশের সাথে Sub + verb + ……………….
1. In spite of his poverty………
Ans: In spite of his poverty, he is honest.pigu 2. In spite of her having merit,
Ans: In spite of her having merit, she failed in the examination. 3. Despite his good qualification, ……….
Ans: Despite his good qualification, he did not get a suitable job. 4…………… despite his innocence.
Ans: The boy was punished despite his innocence.
Note: Despite A
13. In stead of, in lieu of of facér Phrase
In stead of. In পরিবর্তে অন্যটি নেওয়া বা পছন্দ বুঝাতে এ phrase দুটি ব্যবহৃত হয়।
1. In stead of Ans: In stead of history he took logic.
2. The boy bought pens instead of Ans: The boy bought pens instead of pencils.
3. He ate fish in lieu of
Ans: He ate fish in lieu of meat. 14. Because of, on account of, owing to, due to
উপরের phrase গুলির অর্থ “কারণে” বা “জন্যে”। উo phrase of simple sentence গুলি দ্বারা গঠিত Incomplete sentence complete করার সময় subject+verb+ ব্যবহার করতে হয়।
छ । बैंक phrase
1. Everybody loves him because of his
Ans: Everybody loves him because of his honesty.
2. On account of his illness…….. Ans: On account of his illness he could not attend the meeting
3.. 3. due to fog
Ans: The writer dared not drive at night due to fog
simple sentence for frog.
ADVANCED LEARNER’S ENGLISH GRAMMAR & COMPOSITION
15. Would rather/ sooner…………than (TEL/TO)
Would rather/ would sooner i would rather/ would sooner would rather- এর ব্যবহার বেশি। would rather / would sooner যুক্ত sentence & than ব্যবহৃত
Structure: Sub + would rather varb present form…….+
1. I would rather die
Ans: I would rather die than beg 2. He would rather drink tea……..
Ans: He would rather drink tea than coffee. 16. Had better
Had better- এর অর্থ / Had better যুক্ত sentence past tense-এর
হলেও তা মূলত past tense
Had better- unreal past e present/ future tense de Had better
Infinitive to verb base form
Structure: Subject had better + verb base form + ………..
1. I had better………….
Ans: I had better ring him at once. 2. You had better………..
Ans: You had better leave the place.
3. He had better
Ans: He had better go home. 17. No sooner had…………. than, scarcely had………. when, hardly had………. when
এ জাতীয় structure দ্বারা যেতে না যেতে” “খেতে না খেতে”, “পৌঁছাইতে
উপরের structure গুলির when ও than এর পূর্ব পর্যন্ত past perfect tense এবং when ও than
1. No sooner had I gone out……….
Ans: No sooner had I gone out than he came. 2. Scarcely had we reached the station…………
Ans: Scarcely had we reached the station when the train left.
3. Hardly had he reached the college………… Ans: Hardly had he reached the college when the examination began.
18. It is time 1. কোন কাজ করার সঠিক সময় হয়েছে বুঝাIেt is time Infinitive + …….. ৰসে।
It is time for + object+ Infinitive
1. It is time to Ans: It is time to start the work.
2. It is time to ………. Ans: It is time to leave the place.
3. It is time for …………
Ans: It is time for us to attack the enemy.
19. It is time
কোন কাজ করার সঠিক সময় ইতিমধ্যে পার হয়ে গেছে। সুতরাং আর বিলম্ব না করে এ মুহূর্তেই কাজটি শুরু করা উচিৎ বুঝানোর জন্য]  is time ব্যবহৃত হয়। এক্ষেত্রে Structure টি নিম্নরূপ Structure It is time + subject+ past subjunctive+……….
J. It is time we Ans: It is time we went home.
2. It is time they Ans: It is time they earned their livelthood.
তবে বেশি জোর দেওয়া বুঝাতে it is time এর পরিপ্তে Its high ume ব্যবহৃত হয়। তবে উভয় ক্ষেত্রে subject এর পরে verb এর past tense ব্যবহৃত verb টি past tense এর হলেও sentence-টি মূলত: present tense এর
অর্থ প্রকাশ করে।
1. It is high time we………..
2. It is high time they Ans: It is high time they started for the station.
20. As If/ As though
Asif As though”যন” অর্থ প্রকাশ করে। Asif//as though এর প্রথম অংশ Present Indefinite হলে পরের
তশে Past Indefinite হয়। আর প্রথম অংশ past tense হলে পরের অংশ past perfect tense হয়। 1. He tells the matter as if he
Ans: He tells the matter as if he knew it. 2. He told the matter as if he
Ans: He told the matter as if
had known it. 3. She proceeds as though 1. Ans: She proceeds as though I did not speak.
4. She proceeded as though I
Ans: She proceeded as though I had not spoken.
Note: কোন কিছু হওয়া বুঝাতে unreal past এর অর্থ প্রকাশ করতে as though He runs fast as though he ………. Ans: He runs fast as though he were a mad man.
2. He donates money as if he ……. Ans: He donates money as if he were a rich man.
21. Let Alone
/ as if it পরে were বসে।
কোন কিছু চিন্তা করা যায় না” বা “ভাবা যায় না” এরূপ অর্থ প্রকাশ করতে Let alone ব্যবহৃত হয়। ইহা সাধারণতঃ Negative অর্থ প্রকাশ করতে ব্যবহৃত হয়। 1. He can not pass in the third division, let alone………
Ans: He can not pass in the third division. let alone in the first division.
2. I can not swim a kilometer, let alone……. Ans: I can not swim a kilometer, let alone ten kilometers.
3. The old farmer can not visit a small town, let alone Ans: The old farmer can not visit a small town, let alone a big city.
4 I have not decided on the menu yet, let alone…………
Ans: I have not decided on the menu yet, let alone an ice cream. 22. Relative pronoun
who, which, that, whom, whose TH TH Relative Pronoun. Incomplete sentence- 4
Relative Pronoun গুলির যে কোন একটি থাকলে উচ্চ sentence টিকে complete করার সময় Relative Pronoun এর পরে তার antecedent অনুযায়ী verb বসিয়ে sentence টিকে complete করতে হয়। 1. I saw the man who ……….
Ans: I saw the man who was catching fish. 2. This is the house that ……….
Ans: This is the house that he wants to buy.
3. The writer took a cabin which a Ans: The writer took a cabin which was small. 4. The boy whom you met yesterday………
Ans: The boy whom you met yesterday is my brother. 5. Shahana is my friend whose sister…
Ans: Shahana is my friend whose sister is a doctor. Principal clause
23. Without + gerund
Without gerund 50 incomplete sentence
personal subject verb
1. Without reading more Ans: Without reading more you can not pass. 2. Without taking physical exercise Ans: Without taking physical exercise we can not keep our body fit.
without writing much.
Ans: He will not 24. By Gerund
be able to write well without writing much.
By gerund Incomplete sentence ce complete principal Clause over
ব্যবহার করতে হয়।