ADVANCED LEARNER’S ENGLISH GRAMMAR & COMPOSITION
1. By reading more
Ans: By reading more we can learn more. 2. By drinking clean water
Ans: By drinking clean water you can keep flt.
3. by eating rice and bread Ans: We can get carbohydrate by eating rice
25. If+ conditonal
If+ conditional incomplete sentence complete f
(1) If clause Present indefinite Tense principal clause Future Indefinite Tense
Structure: If+ Present Future. 1. If it rains.
Ans: If it rains. we shall not go.
2. If, he wants.
Ans: If he wants, I shall help him. 3. If you play in the rain.
Ans: If you play in the rain, you will catch cold.
(U) If clause- past indefinite tense 4 principal clause past conditional (sub + would/might/ could+ verb et base form)
Structure: If + past indefinite + past conditional
1. If he came Ans: If he came, I would go.
2. If I had a typewriter.
Ans: If I had a typewriter, I would type the letters.
3. If they wanted…………… Ans: If they wanted, we would help them.
(ii) If clause-ft past perfect tense principal clause perfect
(subject + would have/ could have/ might have + verb-4 past participle)
1. If I had seen him
Ans: If I had seen him. I might have told him the news. 2. If they had started earlier m
Ans: If they had started earlier, they could have got the train 3. If she had tried.
Ans: If she had tried, she would have succeeded. (iv) If clause-subject 4 were
could/ would +
1. If I were a king.
Ans: If I were a king. I could help the poor. 2. If I were you.
Ans: If I were you. I would not do this. 26. Had + sub + verb past participle
Subordinate clause focs had + sub + verb past
principal clause-4 subject 4e might/
participle principal clause
1. Had I seen him………… Ans: Had I seen him. I would have given him the news.
2. Had he wanted,
Ans: Had he wanted, they would have helped him. 3. Had I possessed a vast property…….. Ans: Had I possessed a vast property, I would have established a college.
27. The place…………. where 8 Incomplete Sentence- 4 Incomplete sentence where + verb
1. Rupgonj is the place 4: Rupgonj is the place where Tareq was born.
2 A railway station is the place callition Ans: A railway station is the place where trains stop.
3 Paris is the city Ans: Paris is the city where UNESCO headquarter Is.
28. The time when
Incomplete sentenced Incomplete sentence-48 when + sub verb
1. Saturday is the day…
Ans: Saturday is the day when the week begins. 2. 1971 is the year…………
Ans: 1971 is the year when Bangladesh became independent. 3. 10 P. M. is the ume……….
Ans: 10 P. M. is the time when we go to bed.
29. So much/ so many So much দ্বারা পরিমাণ এবং so many দ্বারা সংখ্যা বুঝায়।
So much/ So many Incomplete sentence complete incomplete that
• subject আবারো বসে + 1 You have so much Intelligence………….
Ans: You have so much intelligence that you can get a job. 2. I have not so much time…………..
Ans: I have not so much time that I can accompany you all day,
3. You have so much money …………..
Ans: You have so much money that you can buy a ticket. 4. There are so many problems………..
Ans: There are so many problems that I can not solve them. There are so many stars in the sky………….
Ans: There are so many stars in the sky that we can not count them. 6. They plucked so many flowers…………
Ans: They plucked so many flowers that the garden became empty.
30. Present perfect Tense in the subordinate clause
Incomplete sentence fe principal clause present/ Future Indefinite Tense তার শেষে when / after থাকলে তার পরের subordinate clause টি present perfect Tense হয়।
1. You can go to sleep when have taken your dinner.
Ans: You can go to sleep when you
2. You will return me the book after
Ans: You will return me the book after you have finished reading it.
3. Rezina will swim after…………
Ans: Rezina will swim after she has changed her dress. 31. In case
In case এর অর্থ যদি In case যুক্ত subordinate clause o principal clause- এর কাজের কারণ নির্দেশ করে। In case incomplete sentence- complete in case principal clause কারণের সাথে সম্পর্কযুক্ত একটি subordinate clause গঠন করতে হয়। সাধারণতঃ in case যুক্ত subordinate
clause টি present tense এর হয়।
1.1 will come tomorrow in case…………. Ans: I will come tomorrow in case Jamal wants me.
2. I want to stay at home in case. Ans: I want to stay at home in case he comes.
3. He will carry an umbrella in case
Ans: He will carry an umbrella in case it rains. Note: কোন কাজ সংঘটিত হয়েছে এরূপ বুঝাতে in case যুক্ত sentence এর উভয় clause-এ past tense ব্যবহৃত
1. He carried an umbrella in case……….. Ans: He carried an umbrella in case it rained.
ADVANCED LEARNERS ENGLISH GRAMMAR & COMPOSITION
2 He drew more money in case Ans: He drew more money in case he required more. 3. I waited at the station in case
Ans: I waited at the station in case he came.
fet 31 In case clause res principal clause a/ an + noun অর্থ প্রকাশ করে তবে তা principal clause এর পূর্বে বসে। যেমন In case of shortage of money, phone me = If there is shortage of money. phone me. অসম্বব ইচ্ছা, আকা ইত্যাদি প্রকাশ করতে would that/ I wish ইত্যাদি ব্যবহৃত হয়। এ verb 32. Would that/ I wish
subjunctive past tense
1. I wish I
Ans: I wish I were a king
2. Would that he ………. Ans: Would that he were alive today.
33. To be Feel, suppose, Imagine, report discover, know. Judge assume, em verb to be
Incomplete sentence কে complete করতে হয়। 1. I know him to be…….
Ans: I know him to be honest.
2. We felt the decision to be ……….. Ans: We felt the decision to be wise.
3. We discovered the guard to be
Ans: We discovered the guard to be faithful. 4. The lady is reported to be ………
Ans: The lady is reported to be a spy. 5. We supposed him to be………….
Ans: We supposed him to be a gentle man.
6. He was judged to be ……….
Ans: He was judged to be guilty.
7. He never imagined himself to be ………….
Ans: He never imagined himself to be great. 8. We assumed him to be
Ans: We assumed him to be innocent.
consider, find, think, believe, declare, prove en verb of to be
1. We consider him (to be) honest. 2. I believe the student (to be) sincere.
3. The principal declared the sports (to be) open.
Conjunction হিসেবে as কারণ বা যেহেতু অর্থে ব্যবহৃত হয়। কিন্তু “মত” অর্থ প্রকাশ
acknowledge, condemn ইত্যাদি verb গুলির পর as ব্যবহৃত হয়। as এর পর adjective
1. Khan Jahan All was regarded as………. Ans: Khan Jahan All was regarded as plous.
2. He treats me as………..
Ans: He treats me as innocent. 3. People condemn Mirjafan as………..
Ans: People condemn Mirjafar as trecherous.
4. Sher-e-Bangla’s contribution to the country is acknowledged as………… Ans: Sher-e-Bangla’s contribution to the country is acknowledge as great.
Accept, acknowledge, consider, know, define, describe. Interpret. regard, treat, ust recognize, ইত্যাদি verb গুলির পর as বসে এবং তারপর noun complement বসে। কিন্তু take verb টিয় পর
বসে এবং তারপর noun complement বসে।
it in case of noun if there
করতে regard. treat
বা adjective phrase
1. I can not accept him as my Ans: I can not accept him as my well wisher.
2. Everyone recognised him Ans: Everyone recognised him as the lawful heir..
3. I took him Ans: 1 took him for my friend. 35. Would you mind
Would you mind যুক্ত incomplete sentence কে complete করার সময় mind এর পরে একটি verb বসে যার
সাথে Ing যোগ করতে হয় …..…….. অর্থবোধক একটি object বসাতে হয়। Would you mind………….
Ans: Would you mind taking a cup of tea? 2. Would you mind…………
Ans: Would you mind opening the door? EXERCISE
1. Complete the following sentences. (a) In winter children put on warm clothes,
bl 10 p.m. is the time (c) You are the only man
(d) There are so many stars in the sky el he failed in the examination.
2. (a) He insisted that (b) What is the name of the boy A child, which is burnt ——–
(d) God helps those
le) Five years passed — 3. (a) His silence proves
(b) A man chatches at a straw.
(c) He who loves mankind
(d) Tell me (e) If you are honest…..
4. (a) because he was weak. (b) Scarcely had we reached the station
(c) It is high time they
(d) The poem is so hard (e) Would you mind
5. (a) Muslims go to the mosque in order that (b) was unbelievable.
(c) How he solved the problem (d) If he had been informed.
e Since the boy was disobedient.
6. (a) Five years have passed (b)-divided we fall.
(c) Hardly had they reached home (d) I shall help you provided.
(e) His silence proves that
7. (a) that ends well. (b) It is I who
(c) – when we go to bed.
(d) If I had a car, (e) God helps those who –
8. (a) Though he is that (b) He works so hard
(c) Ten years have elapsed since
(d) Read diligently lest I would have established a college.
9. a) The man who is a patriot. why he is so late.
I’m optimistic that although it was raining heavily.
el the guests were leaving.